By Jürgen Harder, Jens-M. Schröder
This e-book specializes in the significance of human antimicrobial peptides (AMP) in holding the host fit and fighting infectious ailments. the 1st chapters take care of numerous examples of the function of AMP in several epithelial organs (skin and wound therapeutic, eye, lung, genito-urinary tract, gut), that are uncovered to other forms of infectious microorganisms and accordingly produce diverse styles of AMP. Examples of the dysregulation of AMP expression and serve as selling infections are mentioned. The ability of AMP to limit the provision of crucial metals to micro organism as a good antibacterial technique in dietary immunity is mentioned within the subsequent bankruptcy. Our present realizing of ways nutrition D, the light diet, affects AMP-expression and the way this may impact our future health can also be addressed. final yet no longer least, the position of AMP in HIV an infection and the immunomodulatory homes of AMP spotlight the varied aspects of AMP in host immunity. AMP’s particular capabilities, together with in battling multi-resistant micro organism, recommend that they could provide healing merits – a question that's mentioned within the ultimate chapter.
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Extra resources for Antimicrobial Peptides: Role in Human Health and Disease
As for β-defensins, hBD-1 and hBD-2 are overexpressed in about 50–60 % of NSCLC tissue samples (Shestakova et al. 2008). In serum of patients with lung cancer, concentrations of hBD-1 and hBD-2 are significantly higher as compared to healthy controls and even patients with pneumonia. Therefore, hBD-1 and hBD-2 have even been proposed as lung tumor markers (Arimura et al. 2004). AMPs take part in the orchestration of important cellular functions that contribute to oncogenesis and tumor promotion, as they modulate proliferation, cell migration, and angiogenesis.
Upon viral infection, interferon-gamma release is triggered, for example, by TLR3 (Akira 2009) and leads to increased hBD-3 expression (Albanesi et al. 2007). Stimulation of TLRs and cytokine receptors leads to activation of intracellular signaling processes like mentioned above. Therefore, TLR and cytokine receptors induce β-defensin expression in an NF-κB- or MAP kinase-dependent manner (McCray and Bentley 1997; Scharf et al. 2010b). In fact, hBD-2 has been shown to be a direct target gene of the transcription factors NF-κB and the MAP kinase target AP-1 (Wehkamp et al.
2010) and upregulate hBD-2 in airway epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo (Hess et al. 2010; Harder et al. 2000; Albanesi et al. 3 Function of Antimicrobial Peptides in Lung Innate Immunity 37 2007). hBD-2 expression is also stimulated by IL-17A (Kao et al. 2004), which is derived from Th17 cells during lung infection (Ye et al. 2001), and airway epithelial cell-derived IL-17C (Kusagaya et al. 2014). Upon viral infection, interferon-gamma release is triggered, for example, by TLR3 (Akira 2009) and leads to increased hBD-3 expression (Albanesi et al.