By Gustave Mathieu
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Extra info for Advances in the Teaching of Modern Languages
T h e emphasis in this study has been on exploring means of making programs more responsive to individual differences among learners and on developing rules and procedures for writing and improving programs. T h e study has also sought to determine what generalizations about programming could be applied across subject matter areas and age levels. T h e following general procedures were used in all four subject matter areas. A linear program was administered to one student at a time. If he had difficulty in responding to any of the items in the program, he was interviewed immediately so that the cause of his difficulty could be determined.
T h e terminal behaviors desired by our program can be summarized as follows : 1. Ability to discriminate the phonemes of the language and to transcribe them with high accuracy in a uniform system of phonemic transcription. 2. Ability to speak words and phrases with a good approximation to the rendition of a native speaker, exhibiting the ability to make all the phonemic distinctions in the language. 3. Recognition of the lexical and grammatical meanings of some 159 Chinese words, and ability to speak and write these words (phonemic transcription is meant here).
This technique of using successive empirical iterations of intensive tutoring sessions to determine the branching structure and variations in the program differs markedly from current practice in program revision. More typically, remedial branches are inserted at reasonable junctures, and changes are made in the main stream of the program when there is evidence of excessive error rate; item changes are typically based on plausible notions of what should work, rather than on techniques which have actually been tried and do work.