A reference grammar of the Kanuri language by John P Hutchison; Neil Skinner

By John P Hutchison; Neil Skinner

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Extra info for A reference grammar of the Kanuri language

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Avoidance is a term most o en used in the context of learner strategies and particularly as a communication strategy in that it is a conscious mental act with a language use goal. There are two basic types of avoidance strategies adopted by learners: avoidance of topic and avoidance of formulations (the choice of certain words, phrases or language structures to express ideas). However the two types can be interrelated. Topic avoidance is usually a result of lack of cultural knowledge required for that topic to be discussed adequately.

In which country was the study carried out? It helps to know this right from the start because it sets the findings in a real context, and not all learning contexts are the same. Does it then tell you why it was carried out at this point in time and in this particular context? Does it say (usually in a footnote) whether the study was funded by a particular body and who that body might be? Was it an independent body that would not put pressure on the researchers to come up with a particular set of findings or slant the conclusions in order to pursue a desired educational policy?

More recently the use of corpora has come to be viewed as authentic text but this too has come in for criticism: ‘unfiltered’ examples of words and phrases in use have not yet proved themselves as promoting SLA. Authenticity of discourse has provoked even more debate and a definition of authentic classroom discourse is hard to come by. The argument is centred around whether discourse in an L2 classroom can ever be considered as ‘authentic’ and that therefore, rather than simulating the outside world (through role plays for example) we should be considering whether the talk encountered is ‘authenticated’ (Van Lier 1996) by its participants.

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