By Florian Cajori

Defined even at the present time as "unsurpassed," this background of mathematical notation stretching again to the Babylonians and Egyptians is likely one of the so much accomplished written. In outstanding volumes-first released in 1928-9-distinguished mathematician Florian Cajori exhibits the foundation, evolution, and dissemination of every image and the contest it confronted in its upward push to acceptance or fall into obscurity. Illustrated with greater than 100 diagrams and figures, this "mirror of previous and current stipulations in arithmetic" will provide scholars and historians an entire new appreciation for "1 + 1 = 2. Swiss-American writer, educator, and mathematician FLORIAN CAJORI (1859-1930) was once one of many world's such a lot exceptional mathematical historians. Appointed to a in particular created chair within the heritage of arithmetic on the collage of California, Berkeley, he additionally wrote An advent to the idea of Equations, A historical past of hassle-free arithmetic, and The Chequered occupation of Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler.

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**Extra info for A History of Mathematical Notation. Vol II**

**Example text**

S. " The theory that the $ is an entwined U and S, where U S may mean "United States" or one "Uncle Sam," was quoted in 1876 from an old newspaper clipping in the Notes and 1 Queries (London) it is given in cyclopedic references. In the absence j from old manuscripts, this explanation must give way to others which, as we shall find, rest upon a strong basis of fact. Possibly these statements suffice for some minds. Howof even a trace of evidence knowing that traditional theories are dear to the heart of man, an additional coup de grace will not be superfluous.

These pillars were strikingly im7 pressed upon the "pillar dollar/ the Spanish silver coin widely used in the Spanish-American colonies of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 1 The "Pillars of Hercules" was the ancient name of the opposite promontories at the Straits of Gibraltar. The Mexican "globe dollar" of Charles III exhibited between the pillars two globes repre- A Spanish bansenting the old and new worlds as subject to Spain. ner or a scroll around the Pillars of Hercules was claimed to be the origin of the dollar stamped on the coins mark.

4 Euler used e again in 1736 in his Mechanica^ Volume I, page 68, and in other places, as well as in articles of the years5 1747 and 1751. Daniel Bernoulli 7 used e in this sense in 1760, J. A. Segner8 in 1763, Condorcet 9 in 1771, Lambert10 in 1 Pietro Ferroni, Magnitudinum exponentialium .... theoria Florence (1782), p. 228, 252. 2 C. I. Gerhardt, Leibnizens Mathematische Schriften, Vol. II (Berlin, 1850), p. 53, 76. 3 Ada 4 Eider's eruditorum (Leipzig, 1703), p. 451. "Meditatio in experimenta explosione tormentorum nuper inOpera posthuma (1862), VoL II, p.