By American Academy of Ophthalmology, Dimitri T. Azar MD
Part three has been thoroughly reorganized for less complicated use! you will find extra real-life medical examples, many new figures and new studying routines to aid gauge your figuring out of the fabric. part three presents a complete evaluate of scientific optics, together with present purposes of optical phenomena comparable to lasers, spectacles, IOLs and refractive surgical procedure. provides optics of the human eye; uncomplicated techniques of geometric optics; ophthalmic tools and get in touch with lenses. imaginative and prescient rehabilitation is usually discussed.
Upon of completion of part three, readers might be capable to:
Outline the foundations of sunshine propagation and photo formation and paintings via the various primary equations that describe or degree such houses as refraction, mirrored image, magnification and vergence
Define a number of the different types of visible notion and serve as, together with visible acuity, brightness sensitivity, colour conception and distinction sensitivity
Explain the optical ideas underlying quite a few modalities of refractive correction: spectacles, touch lenses, intraocular lenses and refractive surgical procedure
Read or Download 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 3: Clinical Optics PDF
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Additional info for 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 3: Clinical Optics
Here, unlike in all the previous examples, light is convergent when it strikes the second lens (vergence = +2 D). The second lens increases the vergence to +4 D, forming a real image 25 cm behind the second lens. 5, for a total magnification of - l x. A common misconception is that inverted images are real and upright images are virtual. This is not the case. The correct rule is very simple: For any individual lens, the object is virtual when light striking the lens is convergent, and the object is real when light striking the lens is divergent.
Ge A l-2ocm~I 8 l-2ocm~I Posterior focal plane +5 D +5 D s 'us- C f-20 cm-I D /-2ocm-l A, Light that emanates from the anterior focal point, Fa, leaves the lens collimated. B, All object points in the anterior focal plane focus to plus optical infinity. C, Collimated on-axis light from minus optical infinity focuses to the posterior focal point Fp · D, Collimated off-axis rays focus to the posterior focal plane. (Illustration developed by Kevin M. Miller, MD, and rendered Figure 1-29 by C. H. ) 32 • Clinical Optics corresponding points if a thick lens or a multi-element lens system is modeled by firstorder optical principles.
Refractive index is always greater than or equal to 1. In computations, it is often easier to work with the refractive index of a material than directly with the speed of light. The refractive index, n= Speed of Light in Vacuum Speed of Light in Medium is quite sensitive to a material's chemical composition. A small amount of salt or sugar dissolved in water changes its refractive index. Because refractive index is easy to measure . CHAPTER 1: Geometric Optics • 13 accurately, chemists use it to identify compounds or determine their purity.