By Robert H. Rosa Jr., MD
This quantity is split into components: half I, Ophthalmic Pathology; and half II, Intraocular Tumors: medical features. half I makes use of a hierarchy that strikes from basic to express to assist derive a differential prognosis for a particular tissue. half II is a compilation of chosen scientific facets of value to the overall ophthalmologist. Following half II are the yank Joint Committee on melanoma 2010 staging kinds for ocular and adnexal tumors. This revised textual content includes various new pathologic and medical images. significant revision 2011-2012.
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Extra info for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 4: Ophthalmic Pathology and Intraocular Tumors (Basic & Clinical Science Course)
The medial, inferior, lateral, and superior rectus muscles insert progressively farther fro m the limbus. Locating the insertion of the inferior oblique muscle is very helpful in distin gUishing between a right an d a left eye (Fig 3- 1). The inferior oblique inserts tempo rally over the macula, with its fibers runn ing inferiorly. Once the laterality of the eye is determined, the globe may be transilluminated and dissected. Transillumination Eyes are transilluminated with bright light prior to gross dissection.
Exube rant cont racting d istorts m uscle ac tion, produci ng dysfunctional scars. The str~ated muscles of the orbic ularis oculi and ext raocular muscles a re made of te rmi nally d iffere nt iated cells th at do no t rege ne rate, but the via ble cells may hyp er troph y. Histologic Sequelae of Ocular Trauma n upture of the Descemet membrane may occur after minor trau ma (eg, in keratoconus; Fig 2-3) or major trauma (eg, after forceps injury; Fig 2-4). T he anterio r chamber angle structu res, especiall y the trabecu lar beams, are vul nerable to distortion of the anterior globe.
Special Techniques Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy Fine-needle aspi rat ion biopsy (FNA B) has been used instead of excisional biopsy by nonophthalmic surgeons and pathologists. It is especially useful if the physician performing the biopsy can grasp the lesion (usually between the thu mb and forefinger) and make several passes with the needle to obtain representative areas. The use of F AB (with the results interpreted by a well-trained cytologist or ophthalmic pathologist) is becoming more common in ophthalmology.